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Islamic schools and branches

08 Aug 2018 National Radio TV of Afghanistan

This article summarizes the different branches and schools in Islam. The best known split, into Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, and Kharijites, was mainly political at first but eventually acquired theological and juridical dimensions. There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology. The article also summarizes major denominations and movements that have arisen in the modern era.

Overview[edit]

Major schools and branches of Islam (N.B.: Ja’fari and Twelver boxes are interchanged)

Further information: History of Islam

The first centuries of Islam gave rise to three major sects: Sunnis, Shi’as and Kharijites. Each sect developed distinct jurisprudence schools (madhhab) reflecting different methodologies of jurisprudence (fiqh).

For instance, Sunnis are separated into four schools of jurisprudence, namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali.

Shi’a, on the other hand, is divided into three major sects known as Fivers, Seveners and Twelvers. Qarmatians, Ismailis, Fatimids, Assassins of Alamut and Druses all emerged from the Seveners.[1] Isma’ilism later split into Nizari Ismaili and Musta’li Ismaili, and then Mustaali was divided into Hafizi and Taiyabi Ismailis.[2] Moreover, Imami–Shi’a later brought into existence Ja’fari jurisprudence. Akhbarism, Usulism, Shaykism, Alawites[3] and Alevism[4] were all developed from Ithna’asharis.[5]

Similarly, Kharijites were initially divided into five major branches: Sufris, Azariqa, Najdat, Adjarites and Ibadis.

Among these numerous branches, only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali, Imamiyyah–Ja’fari–Usuli, Nizārī Ismā’īlī, Alevi,[6] Zaydi, Ibadi, Zahiri, Alawite,[7] Druze and Taiyabi communities have survived. In addition, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims, and African American Muslims later emerged independently.[8]

Original Link: https://rta.org.af/eng/2018/08/08/islamic-schools-and-branches/

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