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 SSH server

13 Mar 2019 National Radio TV of Afghanistan

Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.[1] Typical applications include remote command-line login and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.

SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server.[2] The protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The standard TCP port for SSH is 22. SSH is generally used to access Unix-like operating systems, but it can also be used on Windows. Windows 10uses OpenSSH as its default SSH client.[3]

SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and for unsecured remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rlogin, rsh, and rexecprotocols. Those protocols send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis.[4] The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet, although files leaked by Edward Snowden indicate that the National Security Agency can sometimes decrypt SSH, allowing them to read the contents of SSH sessions.[5]


Example of tunneling an X11 application over SSH: the user ‘josh’ has SSHed from the local machine ‘foofighter’ to the remote machine ‘tengwar’ to run xeyes.

Logging into OpenWrt via SSH using PuTTY running on Windows.

SSH is a protocol that can be used for many applications across many platforms including most Unix variants (Linux, the BSDs including Apple’s macOS, and Solaris), as well as Microsoft Windows. Some of the applications below may require features that are only available or compatible with specific SSH clients or servers. For example, using the SSH protocol to implement a VPN is possible, but presently only with the OpenSSH server and client implementation.

For login to a shell on a remote host (replacing Telnet and rlogin)

For executing a single command on a remote host (replacing rsh)

For setting up automatic (passwordless) login to a remote server (for example, using OpenSSH[25])

In combination with rsync to back up, copy and mirror files efficiently and securely

For forwarding or tunneling a port (not to be confused with a VPN, which routes packets between different networks, or bridges two broadcast domains into one).

For using as a full-fledged encrypted VPN. Note that only OpenSSH server and client supports this feature.

For forwarding X from a remote host (possible through multiple intermediate hosts)

For browsing the web through an encrypted proxy connection with SSH clients that support the SOCKS protocol.

For securely mounting a directory on a remote server as a filesystem on a local computer using SSHFS.

For automated remote monitoring and management of servers through one or more of the mechanisms discussed above.

For development on a mobile or embedded device that supports SSH.

For securing file transfer protocols.

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